Today, worldwide, migration attracts increasing attention. Migrants are people who are forced to change their place of residence and work due to poverty, conflicts, natural disasters, climate change and environmental degradation, inequalities and violations of economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights.
The total number of international migrants has increased from about 175 million in 2000 to 244 million people in 2015. Nearly two-thirds of all international migrants live in Europe (76 million) or Asia (75 million). One out of every ten migrants is under the age of 15. http://www.un.org/en/events/migrantsday/background.shtml
In 2016, the UNHCR counts 67.75 million people for “people to be looked after”.
Според податоците на УНХЦР, во Република Македонија во 2016 година имало 629 бегалци, 10 баратели на азил, 54 вратени бегалци и 600 лица без државјанство. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/persons_of_concern
According to UNHCR data, in the Republic of Macedonia in 2016 there were 629 refugees, 10 asylum seekers, 54 returned refugees and 600 stateless persons. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/persons_of_concern
The International Organization for Migration (IOM, www.iom.int) in the World Migration Report for 2015 notes:
“We live in an era of unprecedented human mobility that is significantly urban. The world is estimated to have 232 million international migrants (UN DESA, 2013) and 740 million internal migrants (UNDP, 2009). About 50 percent of international migrants live in ten highly-urbanized, high-income countries, such as Australia, Canada and the United States, several countries in Europe (France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom), the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates . In some cities, such as Sydney, London and New York, migrants account for over one third of the population, while in some cities such as Brussels and Dubai, migrants account for more than half of the population. For many cities, migration has become a more important determinant of population growth compared to fertility and mortality (Scaldon, 2013). ”
An increased cooperation and collective action between countries to deal with elements of unpredictability, emergency and complexity, challenges and migration-related issues are needed.
According to UNHCR:
Refugees include persons recognized under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees; The 1967 Protocol; The 1969 OAU Convention on the Regulation of the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa; those recognized in accordance with the Statute of the UNHCR; individuals who have received complementary forms of care; or those who enjoy temporary protection.
Asylum seekers are persons who seek international protection and whose refugee status claims have not yet been established, regardless of when they can be filed.
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are persons or groups of persons who were forced to leave their homes or places of permanent residence, especially as a result of, or in order to avoid the consequences of armed conflict, situations of general violence, injuries human rights, natural or man-made disasters and who have not crossed the international frontier.
Returned refugees are former refugees who have returned to their country of origin spontaneously or in an organized manner, but still need to be fully integrated. Returned IDPs refers to internally displaced persons who are beneficiaries of UNHCR protection and assistance and activities that have returned to their areas of origin or permanent residence throughout the year.
Stateless persons are persons who are not considered nationals of any State within its law. In other words, they do not possess the citizenship of any state.
United Nations and migrants
On December 4, 2000, the United Nations General Assembly, taking into account the large and growing number of migrants in the world, declared December 18th the International Day of Migrants (A / RES / 55/93). On that day, in 1990, the Assembly adopted the International Convention for the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Members of Their Families (A / RES / 45/158).
132 Member States that participated in the High Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, conducted by the General Assembly on 14 and 15 September 2006, confirmed a number of key messages. First, they emphasized that international migration is a growing phenomenon and that it can give a positive contribution to development in countries of origin and destination, provided that it is backed up by actual policies. Secondly, respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms of all migrants is essential to the benefits of international migration. Thirdly, they recognized the importance of strengthening international co-operation on bilateral migration, both on a regional and global level.
On September 19, 2016, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a number of commitments during its first summit on large movements of refugees and migrants to improve the protection of refugees and migrants. These obligations are known as the New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants. It reaffirms the importance of the regime of international protection and is a commitment of Member States to strengthen mechanisms for the protection of people on the move.
Message from the UN Secretary General for 2016
We saw the continued catastrophic effects of armed conflict over the civilian population, leading to death, destruction and displacement. We are witnessing an unacceptable loss of thousands of lives of transit people in the Mediterranean and elsewhere. We are witnessing the rise of populist movements that want to alienate and expel migrants and refugees and accuse them of various diseases of society.
However, within this turbulence, we also find rays of hope, with worried citizens and communities that open their hands and hearts.
Every migrant is a human being with human rights. The protection and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants, regardless of their status, is an essential element of the New York Declaration. In order to achieve this, stronger international cooperation is needed between countries of origin, transit and destination, which is governed by international law and standards. We must reject intolerance, discrimination and policies that are driven by xenophobic rhetoric and scapegoat to migrants.
Good migration management requires the expansion of legal channels for secure migration, including for family reunification, labor mobility at all levels of skills and opportunities for education of children and adults, as well as the decriminalization of illegal migration and the regulation of the status of migrants without documents.
The Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 offers an opportunity to ensure that the needs of the most marginalized, including migrants, are a priority, so that no one is left behind.
On the occasion of the World Day of Migrants 2017, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon declares: “On this International Migrants Day, I call on the international community to act globally for safe, regular and orderly migration as an important contribution to building a world of migrants. peace, prosperity, dignity and opportunity for all “. http://www.un.org/en/events/migrantsday/