YOUNG PEOPLE, HEALTH AND THEIR HEALTHCARE CONDITION
Health is the main resource of life and the assumption of well-being and quality human life in the community. Health is increasingly taken as a measure of community development, poverty reduction, social inequality and discrimination, but also as a sign of connection, understanding and cooperation between people. Being healthy is becoming one of the fundamental human rights. According to these determinations, health and health promotion are holistic, contextually set and highly ethical concepts, which should be incorporated into policies and practices for the promotion of public health.
Happiness from life
With age, dissatisfaction with the life of all groups of youth is growing, with the exception of the boys from the Albanian community, where there is no descent. Interethnic differences show that girls of all three ages, and 15-year-old boys, are less satisfied with life than their Albanian peers (the same age born group). The connection between life satisfaction and family ownership in all age groups of children, boys and girls, and in both ethnic communities is very strong. Compared to other countries, Macedonian children are among the countries ranked low on life satisfaction, and 15-year-olds and the lowest of 44 countries in Europe. Unlike Macedonia, the countries of the region (Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Croatia) are ranked from the middle to the top after their life satisfaction on the list of 44 countries.
Using drugs to overcome psychosomatic conditions
The results show that the use of medication / tablets for headache in girls in Macedonian classes increases with age. Cross-country differences are observed in 11-year-old pupils from Albanian classes, at the expense of boys, and among 15-year-old ethnic Macedonians at the expense of girls. Girls from Macedonian classes aged 11 and 15 are more likely to use drugs for headaches than their Albanian peers, while among 11-year-olds interethnic differences are at the expense of ethnic Albanians. Family property is negatively related to the use of medication for headache in 15-year-old ethnic Macedonians.
Chronic diseases, disabilities and other health problems
With age the prevalence of chronic diseases, handicaps or other health problems increases only in girls in Macedonian classes. Cross-border differences are noted only in the group of 11-year-old ethnic Albanians, with boys more suffering from these diseases than their peers. In this age group, there are interethnic differences between boys, with Albanian boys suffering a greater percentage of their Macedonian peers.
Excessive body weight
The prevalence of students with obesity and obesity decreases with age, among respondents from both ethnic groups. Boys in relation to girls are thicker. A positive link between socio-economic status and the obesity of the respondents exists in the boys of the Macedonian group, and among the 11-year-old girls, Albanian women. Internationally, Macedonia is among the countries with high prevalence of obese young people.
With age, everyday breakfast is reduced in the children of the Macedonian ethnic community. There is no such tendency for Albanian-speaking children. Students from Macedonian classes are more likely to have breakfast every day during their school days than their peers from Albanian classes.
Girls from both ethnic groups in all ages are washing their teeth more often than boys. With age, daily tooth brushing is reduced in the Albanian ethnic group. We have a positive connection with family property and tooth brushing in the boys in the Macedonian ethnic group and among the girls in the Albanian ethnic group. Internationally, Macedonia is among countries with lower prevalence of daily tooth brushing, more than once a day.
The results of everyday physical activity showed that boys and younger respondents are in greater percentage physically active in most days. In girls, physical activity falls dramatically with age: the prevalence is almost three times lower in 15-year-old girls compared to the 11-year-olds. Internationally, Macedonia is among the countries with high prevalence of everyday physical activity: it is at the top of the table and girls are better ranked than boys.
Watching TV/video for two or more hours during the day
The results of the survey show that the prevalence of students who said they watch TV every day, 2+ hours, are increasing with age. The respondents from the Macedonian ethnic group, in all adult categories, expressed a higher proportion of watching TV, compared to the respondents from the Albanian ethnic group. Positive connection with family property exists among 11-year-old boys from the Macedonian ethnic group. Internationally, Macedonia is among the countries with lower prevalence of daily TV viewing, 2+ hours.
With age, the number of children who smoke every day increases, and up to eight times more than their 11 to 15 years. The most common daily smokers, among young people are 15-year-old Albanian boys. In contrast, Albanian girls smoke less than all other respondents. From here, the high inter-ethnic and inter-ethnic disproportion among the students from the Albanian ethnic community, ie among the girls from both ethnic communities. There is a connection between everyday smoking and family property among 11-year-old Macedonian and 15-year-old Albanian boys. Compared to the countries in the region, Macedonia belongs to the group of countries with relatively low prevalence of everyday smokers.
Drinking alcohol at least once a week
Macedonia belongs to the group of countries with an average proportion (14%) of 15-year-olds who drink alcohol at least once a week. With age multiple (two times a day) is growing, the prevalence of drinking once a week. In addition, boys drink more than two to three times more, compared to girls in Macedonian classes at the age of 13 and 15. Major inter-ethnic differences occur among 15-year-old boys and girls, as well as 13-year-old boys at the expense of Macedonian students who drink more. As in Europe, the prevalence of alcohol consumption once a week in 15-year-olds declines over time.
Smoking marijuana in the last 30 days (current users)
The prevalence of marijuana use at least once during the last 30 days is low in both genera. There is no occurrence of inter-ethnic and interethnic differences. Girls, Macedonians from high-powered families, used marijuana more often in the last 30 days, compared to students from low-income families.
Sexual behavior of young people in Macedonia
The high prevalence of sexual experiences among 15-year-old boys, as well as the high female disproportion of 12: 1 sexually active boys versus girls, after which they far deviate from European averages, are important determinants of sexual behavior of young people from Macedonia.
With the increase of sexual experiences, the use of condoms among young people in Macedonia is increasing, and thus their protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases improves. However, girls are significantly less likely than boys to protect themselves during the first and last sexual intercourse. Particularly high is the inter-ethnic disproportion during the first sexual intercourse between ethnic Albanians, up to 9: 1, in proportion to boys and girls.
Harassment at school
Age has little effect on the frequency of bullying other students. The boys from the two ethnic groups more than the girls participated in harassment of other students, and this difference is not only significant for 11 and 15 year old boys and girls of Albanian nationality. Internationally, Macedonia is ranked in countries with medium-sized students who mistreated other students.
Maltreatment via electronic media
Age has no effect on the frequency of the occurrence of maltreatment, in either of the two presented ways, via electronic media. Inter-ethnic differences are noticed among Macedonian students: 11-year-olds and 15-year-old boys from Macedonian classes were more bullied by girls via electronic media, while there were no significant interethnic differences between students from different ethnic communities. The low family property is related to the appearance of inappropriate phonographs, with intimate content, and without permission, among the 11-year-old boys from the Macedonian and 15-year-old boys from the Albanian classes.
Source: Results of the Study – Health related behaviors among students at 11, 13 and 15 years in Macedonia, HBSCM, 2014
Health and health care of school children and youth in Macedonia, 2016
Activities for health care of school children and youth are realized in 40 stations, which are all in the city.
In this area work 62 doctors and 110 health workers with higher and secondary education. It is not yet reach a satisfactory level of assistance to doctors of this group of the population and on average, there is 1 doctor of 5228 children aged 7-19 years for the Republic.
Unsatisfactory is the ratio of physicians and health care workers with higher and secondary education, which is 1: 1.8
The total volume of preventive health services and activities performed in 2016 recorded an increase of 19.7index points compared to 2015.
Mortality in the health care for school children and youth
In 2016 are registered a total of 125 deaths, on the age of 5-24 years and a rate of 24.8% oo.
The distribution by age shows that young people from 15-24 years are most common in the mortality of the population, with participation of 70.4%, and rate of 32% oo.
The distribution by sex shows that males are over-represented compared to women.
Mortality by age and sex, 5-24, PM, 2016 (rate / 100,000)
- raising the awareness of young people through programs for health education at all levels in order to indicate of the importance of their own health and well-being;
– Active participation in the implementation of health programs in order to apply the knowledge acquired to health education about healthy lifestyles;
- raising the awareness of young people about the risks that exist in their health in order to reduce risky behavior.
Determined pathological conditions during systematic examinations of pupils and students in 2015/2016
A) In primary schools
Deformities, poor posture and poor nutrition of the body are the most common pathological conditions found during the systematic examinations of pupils in primary education.
Poor posture is recorded in 12,142 pupils or 19.3% of those examined; deformities of the foot, which are represented in 11 871 pupils or 18.9% of the examined; deformities of the spinal column and the thorax in 11,391 pupils or 18.1% of the total examined.
In the fourth place is the poor nutrition of the body represented in 9107 pupils or 14.5% of the examined.
Compared with the previous year, for all previously listed pathological conditions, there is a decrease in the percentage representation in the examined pupils in 2016.
The spinal column and chest deformities are most represented in the students of V and VII grade, while the deformities of the foot are mostly registered in Ist and VIIth grade.
Poor body development was observed in 3,369 pupils or 5.4% of examined. Compared with the previous year, there was a decreasing representation of 3.4%
In 4,987 pupils or 7.9% of the examined, were found obstacles in sight and motility, which is a smaller proportion compared to the previous year, when were recorded in 8.3% of the examined; Congenital cardiac anomalies were found in 272 or 0.4% (51% less compared to the previous year), and acquired in 441 or 0.7% of examined patients, which is 34% less compared to the previous year.
The lesion is present in 104 pupils or 0.2% and is 37.3% lower compared to the previous year, while insufficient body hygiene is found in 610 or 1% of the examined pupils, which is 14% more compared to the previous year.
Laboratory blood tests for hemoglobin, according to reports, were made only in 68% of the examined pupils. Hemoglobin under 10 g% was found in 1166 pupils or 1.9% of the examined, which is 12.1% more than in the previous year.
Urine examination was performed in 32,557 pupils or 51.8% of the total examined, with an album found in 672 pupils or 1.1% of those examined on a urine albumin. The previous year, a review of the presence of a albumin in the urine was performed in a total of 41,698 students, or 57.6% of the examined; Albumin was detected in 2.4% of the examined.
During dental examinations, in 8,883 pupils or 1% of examined patients was found caries, which is by 31.2% less compared to the previous year. Orthodontic anomalies were found in 3,479 pupils or 5.5% of examined patients, which is 38.2% less compared to the previous year.
B) Secondary schools
Among the secondary school students from the pathological conditions, the most common are the deformities of the spinal column and thorax in 5.510 or 21.6% of the examined (by 6.1% less compared to the previous year); poor posture in 5,486 pupils or 21.5% of the total number of examined patients (4.2% less than in the previous year), poor nutrition of the body in 3,410 pupils or 13.4% of the examined (for 11, 5% less than the previous year). Fourth, the deformities of the foot represented 3,378 students or 13.3% (3.4% less compared to the previous year). Obstacles of motility and motility were found in 2,626 pupils or 10.3% of the examined.
Congenital cardiac abnormalities were found in 66 students or 0.3%, being less than double the previous year, while acquired abnormalities were found in 34 or 0.1% of examined students (329 and 0.9% of examined in 2015).
Bad development of the body was found in 757 pupils (3%).
The lesion is found only in 12 students and is lower in relation to the incoherence of primary school students – 104 or 0.2%.
Laboratory blood tests for hemoglobin were performed in 17,858 students or 70.1% of the examined (26149 or 69.5% examined in the previous year), where hemoglobin was found below 10 g.% in 323 students or 1.3% for hemoglobin (438 or 1.2% in the previous year).
A total of 13,078 pupils or 51.3% (21193 or 56.3% of the last year) performed an examination of a urine album, and a positive album was found in 265 students or 1% of the examined (635 or 1.7% the previous year).
During dental examinations, caries was found in 5,528 pupils or 21.7% of the examined (4756 or 12.6% of caries found in students, the previous year). Orthodontic anomalies were registered in 1,703 pupils or 6.7% (1888 or 5% were registered last year).
According to the Program for Systematic Surveys for 2015/2016, a total of 100,016 students are enrolled, or 97,1% of the undergraduates and meets the envisaged standard of 90-95%. In the previous year, the coverage was 96.1%. Primary school students account for 97.3%; Among pupils in secondary education 95.3%, while students account for 100% of the students.
The predicted contents of systematic reviews under the Program are not satisfactory in terms of laboratory tests (blood-hemoglobin, urine-albumin and gastrointestinal feces) that are performed in insufficient volume or are not performed at all in some regions.
All this is imposed, taking measures to improve the implementation of the Program for systematic examinations of pupils and students, especially with regard to the involvement of students and students in the practices in order to remedy the situation.