Tuberculosis is still a global health problem, especially in undeveloped countries and developing countries.
Today, a third of the world’s population is infected with the tubercle bacillus, ie has latent tuberculosis, which means that people have been infected with TB bacteria, but they are not (yet) suffering from the disease and they can not transmit the disease.
HIV / AIDS in the world contribute to significantly increased the number of patients with tuberculosis. HIV infection is the most known factor which allows progression to tuberculosis infection disease.
Every year, on March 24 the world marks the Day of tuberculosis. One of the world’s major health challenges are 9 million new TB cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide.
Three million people do not get the care they need, so let’s find them!
This years’ motto for the World Day of preventing TB is: “Reach the 3 million: Find, treat and cure “.
In May 2014 the Parliament of the World Health Organization, governments of the countries-member agreed on 20 years (2016-2035) of hard work in order to eradicate the global TB epidemic.
Anyone who is infected with TB has the right to appropriate care, including diagnosis, treatment and cure.
The resolution calls on governments to adapt and implement the strategy with a high level of commitment and funding for it. It reinforces the frame in focus on a particular type of population that is focusing on highly vulnerable groups which have poor access to health care, such as migrants.
Objectives of the Global Strategy for TB prevention, care and control in 2015
The strategy emphasized the need for involving all institutional partners in the health sector and beyond, such as areas of social security, justice, immigration etc.
To achieve the objectives set out in the strategy for the ultimate end of tuberculosis, the annual decline in the global incidence of tuberculosis is needed to be increased by 2% per year in 2015, to 10% per year until 2025.
The percentage of people who die from the disease needs to be decreased from the 15% in 2015 to 6.5% by 2025.
Situation in the Republic of Macedonia
In 2013 in the Republic of Macedonia is registered prevalence of active TB from 20.8 per 100 000 inhabitants or 428 cases. In the 2014 in the Republic of Macedonia is registered prevalence of active TB from 18.8 per 100 000 inhabitants, or 389 cases. These numbers are lower than the prevalence in 2005, amounting to 52.8 patients per 100 000 inhabitants. Continuously, there has been consistently reduced the total number of patients with tuberculosis for the analyzed period 2005-2014, and the rate of prevalence shows a decreasing trend. (Diagram1)
In 2014 in the Republic of Macedonia is registered the incidence of active tuberculosis from 13.8 per 100 000 inhabitants or 285 newly infected cases, while in 2013 the incidence was 15.7 per 100 000 inhabitants or 323 newly infected with TB. In the analyzed period from 2005-2014, the rate of incidence, as well as the prevalence rate shows a downward trend. Macedonia is among the countries with a low incidence in the European region. (Dijagram2)
Measures to improve the situation
Tuberculosis is a disease that can be treated and cured by full control of the doctor, by taking medication regularly and respecting the advices.
In order to advance the control and treatment of tuberculosis in the country, reducing the risk of spreading the infection, especially those caused by resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, prevention of tuberculosis co-infection and HIV infection, it is necessary to take all available preventive measures that contribute to early detection and prevention of disease.
Active case finding of tuberculosis risk groups with selective radiophotographie. In 2015 are being planned radiographs at risk groups which include: patients in psychiatric hospitals, prisoners in the penitentiary in the country, internally displaced persons, drug addicts etc. In order for early detection of patients with tuberculosis and other non-specific lung diseases is used radiographic recording for persons who are at greater risk of suffering from tuberculosis.
DOT Activities – It means direct control of the treatment and monitoring of patients with tuberculosis, and health education through conversation with patients and their families.
Preventing the spread of TB is possible by treating new cases of tuberculosis according to standard modes of treatment recommended by the World Health Organization. The best preventive measure is proper and timely treatment of every case of tuberculosis which interrupts the chain of infection spreading.