World Water Day 2015-Water and sustainable development
Without water there is no sustainable development!
Mankind needs water
A drop of water is flexible. A drop of water is powerful.
Water is base of the sustainable development.
Water resources and the range of services that offer, reinforcing poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. From the safety of food and energy to public health and environment, water contributes to the improvement of social welfare and inclusive growth, affecting the lives of billions of people.
WATER IS HEALTH
Clean hands can save your life. Water is essential for human health. The human body can live for weeks without food, but only a few days without water. Water is essential to our survival. Regular hands washing, is one of the best ways to remove bacteria and to prevent from illness, and to prevent the spread of germs. One trillion bacteria can live in one gram of feces. The human body is made an average of 50-65% water. Babies have the highest percentage of water; infants have 78% water.
Every day, each person needs access to water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene. Water is essential for toilets which do not endanger the health and dignity. The World Health Organization recommends 7.5 liters per capita per day to satisfy the requirements of people in most of the circumstances. A large quantity of about 20 liters per capita per day will take care of basic hygiene and basic food hygiene. Despite impressive gains made over the last decade, 748 million people lack access to improved sources of drinking water and 2.5 billion do not use improved sanitation facility. Investments in water and sanitation services result in significant economic benefits. The return on investment for achieving universal access to improved sanitation is estimated at 5.5 to 1, and for universal access to improved sources of drinking water ratio is estimated at 2 to 1. To cover every person in the world with safe drinking water and sanitation is estimated to cost 107.000.000.000 $ a year for five years.
WATER IS NATURE
Ecosystems are located in the heart of the global water cycle
Ecosystems – including, for example, forests, swamp and grasslands – are located in the heart of the global water cycle. All freshwater ultimately depend on the continued healthy functioning of ecosystems, and the recognition of the cycle of water is essential for achieving sustainable water management. However, most economic models do not evaluate the basic services provided by freshwater ecosystems. This leads to unsustainable use of water resources and degradation of ecosystems.
For example, Okavango River in Africa is one of the last undisturbed ecosystems on Earth. Pollution from untreated residential and industrial wastewater and agricultural discharges also weaken the ability of the ecosystem to provide services related to water. There is a need to turn to environmentally sustainable economic policies that take into account the interconnection between ecological systems. It’s a challenge to keep handy mix between built and natural infrastructure and the provision of their services. Economic arguments can make preservation of ecosystems relevant for decision making and planning. The valuation of ecosystems shows that the benefits far outweigh the cost of investment in water-related ecosystem conservation. The evaluation is also important in assessing the trade-offs in the preservation of the ecosystem, and can be used to inform better the development plans. The adoption of the “ecosystem-based management” is key to ensure long-term sustainability of water.
WATER IS URBANISATION
Each week, a million people go to cities
Today, one in two people in the world live in the city. The cities in the world are growing at an exceptional rate – 4 people moved to cities for the time it took you to read the sentence. Over 90% of urbanization is happening in poor or developing countries, and nearly 40% o f urban expansion in the world is on the rise in the slums. The projections show that 2.5 billion people will move to urban centers by 2050.
Report from2014 for “World Urban expectations” by the Department for Population of the UN. DESA notes that most urban growth will occur in India, China and Nigeria. “The management of urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century. Our success or failure in building sustainable cities will be a major factor in success of the post-2015 development agenda of the UN, “said John Wilmoth, Director of the Department for Population of the UN DESA. Thousands of kilometers of tubes form water infrastructure of each city. Many outdated systems consume more fresh water (loss of drinking water supply network) than they deliver. In rapidly growing cities (small and medium-sized cities with populations less than 500,000), infrastructure for wastewater disposal is non-existent, inadequate or outdated.
WATER IS INDUSTRY
More water is consumed for the production of a car than to fill the swimming pool
Each manufactured product requires water. Some industries have greater water demands from others. 10 liters of water were used to make a sheet of paper, 91 liters are used to make 500 grams of plastic.
Индустријализацијата може да доведе до развој преку зголемување на продуктивноста, работни места и приходи. Тоа може да обезбеди можности за родова еднаквост и вработување на младите. Сепак, приоритет на индустријата е да се зголеми производството, отколку ефикасноста на водоснабдувањето и зачувувањето на водата. Глобалната побарувачка на вода за производство се очекува да се зголеми за 400% од 2000-2050 година, што е многу поголемо од другите сектори. Главното зголемување ќе биде во новите економии и земјите во развој. Многу големи компании имаат направено значителен напредок во оценување и намалување на нивната употреба на вода и на нивните ланци на снабдување. Малите и средни претпријатија (МСП) се соочуваат со слични предизвици во однос на водата но во помал обем. Бизнис случајот за ефикасност на водата често бара финансиска трампа. Инвестициите во ефикасна пречистителна технологија или процеси на ладење може да имаат подолг период на враќање, одколку моменталните враќања на алтернативните краткорочни инвестиции во производството. Технологијата и интелигентното планирање ја намалуваат употребата на вода и можат да го подобрат квалитетот на отпадната вода. Некои прогресивни текстилни производители имаат воведено технологија со која се овозможува водата што доаѓа од технолошкиот процес да е чиста или почиста од водата која доаѓа од градската вода за пиење. Големите компании за пијалоци, исто така, ја подобруваат нивната ефикасност во користењето на водата и во текот на изминатите 10 години ја имаат значително намалено потрошувачката на водата која се користи во нивните производствени погони.
Industrialization can lead to the development by increasing productivity, jobs and income. It can provide opportunities for gender equality and youth employment. However, the priority of the industry is to increase production, rather than the performance of water supply and water conservation. Global demand for water production is expected to increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 year, which is much higher than other sectors. The main increase will be in emerging economies and developing countries. Many large companies have made significant progress in assessing and reducing their water use and their supply chains. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are facing similar challenges in terms of water but on a smaller scale. Business case for water efficiency often requires financial swap. Investments in efficient water treatment technology or processes of cooling can have a longer period of return than the current returns of alternative short-term investment in production. Technology and intelligent planning reduces the use of water and can improve the quality of waste water. Some progressive textile manufacturers have introduced technology that allows the water that comes from the technological process is clean or cleaner than the water that comes from the city’s drinking water. Large companies drinks also improve their efficiency in water use during the past 10 years have significantly reduced consumption of water used in their manufacturing plants.
WATER AND ENERGY
Water and energy are inseparable friends
Water and energy are natural partners. Water is needed to generate energy. Energy is needed to provide water. Today more than 80% of the electrical energy is obtained from thermal energy. The water is heated to produce steam to raise the electrical generators. Billion gallons of water are also needed for cooling.
This requires limited construction and use of the least efficient power plants that run on coal. World hydropower is considered 16% of global power production – expected 3700 major dams may more than double to duplicate the total electric capacity of hydropower in the next two decades.
New energy production should use widely adapted dry-cooling or highly efficient cooling technology with closed loop. Using alternative water sources such as sea or waste water offers great potential for reducing the pressure on freshwater resources.
Renewable energy comes from sources that are naturally replenished, such as sunlight, wind, rain, and tide, waves and geothermal heat. This does not require large amounts of fresh water. However, according to today’s rate of adoption, renewable energy will remain marginal globally.
WATER IS FOOD
For the production of two steaks is required 15,000 liters of water
Each American uses 7,500 gallons of water per day – primarily for food. Inefficient use of water may mean that 100 liters are needed to produce one calorie. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water abstraction in some developed countries. Globally, agriculture is the largest consumer of water, assuming 70% of the total water abstraction. By 2050, the agriculture will have to produce 60% more food globally, and 100% in developing countries.
The economic growth and individual well-being impact of changing of eating habits from predominantly starch-based diets, diets based on meat and dairy products, which require more water. For example, the production of one kilogram of rice requires 3,500 liters of water while 1 kg of beef requires 15,000 liters. Changing eating habits have the greatest impact on water consumption in the last 30 years, and is likely to continue in the middle of the 21st century.
Currently growing rates of requests in agriculture world for freshwater sources are unsustainable. Inefficient use of water for farming depletes the aquifer, reducing river flows, degrades the flora and fauna, and can cause salinisation for 20% of global irrigated land area. To increase the efficiency of water use, agriculture can reduce water loss and more importantly, you need to increase productivity in farming with respect to water.
With increasing intensive agriculture, water pollution can become worst. Experience from high income countries show that a combination of initiatives, including stricter law enforcement and well-targeted subsidies can help reduce water pollution.
WATER AND EQUALITY
Every day women spend 200 million hours carrying water
In developing countries the responsibility for collecting water each day falls disproportionately on women and girls. The average women in these regions spend 25 percent of their day collecting water for their families. This is not the time spent working as a job with income, care for family or going to school. The investments in water and sanitation show significant economic benefits. Every invested dollar shows return between 5 and 28 $.
Climate change adversely affect on sources of fresh water. Current projections show that the risks associated with freshwater are increased significantly by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, exacerbating the competition for water between uses and all a user, affecting regional security for water, energy and food. Combined with increasing demand for water, this will create enormous challenges for management of water sources.
Natural hazards are inevitable but much can be done to reduce the high number of deaths and casualties from destruction. Inadequate human activities may create and accelerate the impact of water-related disasters. These threats of water increase with climate changes and human activities, But with preparedness and planning, victims and destructions may be reduced. The global community has committed itself to the principles of coherent prevention and response to disasters. Now there is a need for specific and significant changes for this. to be realized
Source: Report on quality of drinking water in the Republic of Macedonia for 2014. Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia.
The report on the quality of drinking water in the Republic of Macedonia for 2014 from the Institute of Public Health is reported that 1,301,646 people, ie 63.1% of the population in the country is supplied with drinking water from central water supply systems managed by public utilities that meet legal obligations regarding the provision and control of health safety of drinking water (Statement of drinking water in 2014. Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia, 2015). The others are supplied in the following ways:
- 213 422 people (10.34%) are connected to the public water supply.
- 468 471 people (22.7%) in rural areas are supplied by local public water supply systems, which are not always managed by public company (in most of these facilities the water is not disinfected, and if it is performed, it is usually done with chlorine products, but it is performed unequally and irregular).
- 79 703 people (3.86%) are supplied with drinking water from local water supply facilities (public fountains, wells, springs, pumps and other individual water supply facilities).
The access to safe drinking water is 97% and it categorized the Republic of Macedonia among countries with very high access, which reduces the country’s commitment to improve access to safe drinking water to 98% in 2020.
The safety of drinking water from the city water supply in the country is very high (Chart 1).
Graph. 1 Structure of the health safety of drinking water samples from urban water supply in the country for the period from 2002 to 2014 year